Hemoplasmas are non-cultivable bacterial parasites of erythrocytes that infect domestic and wild animals, as well as humans. Their means of transmission and pathogenesis remain contentious issues and difficult to evaluate in wild animals. Procyon cancrivorus is a South American carnivore and occurs in all Brazilian biomes. In this study, we aimed to investigate occurrences of hemoplasmas infecting P. cancrivorus and to identify their 16S rRNA gene, in southern Brazil. DNA was extracted from spleen and blood samples of P. cancrivorus (n = 9) from different locations. Hemoplasma DNA was detected in six samples, based on 16S rRNA gene amplification and phylogenetic analysis. Four of the six sequences belonged to the “Mycoplasma haemofelis group”, which is closely related to genotypes detected in Procyon lotor from the USA; one was within the “Mycoplasma suis group”, closely related to “Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum”; and one was within the intermediate group between these clusters. Thus, these sequences showed that the molecular identity of hemoplasmas in the population studied was very variable. In five positive animals, Amblyomma aureolatum ticks and a flea (Ctenocephalides felis felis) were collected. The present study describes the first molecular detection of mycoplasmas in P. cancrivorus


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